The saloon was adorned with magnificent mirrors,
rock crystal chandeliers, candelabra
of gilded bronze and a huge pier glass
over a marble fireplace.
The light that conquers darkness and casts out human fears along with it contains something magical. To master the light, man attracted brushwood, resin, oil, wax, lard, kerosene, gas, and, finally, electricity as allies. The simplest lighting devices can be seen in rock art, and torches, disks, vessels with hot coal, tarred or oiled wood shavings are described by Homer. Later, progress gave man more and more powerful and pure sources of light, and creative inspiration gave rise to the most peculiar forms of lighting devices.
Equipping a dwelling with one or another set of lamps, people either seek to link the interiors into a single harmonious ensemble, or intend to give each room a unique look. Accordingly, when choosing lighting fixtures, it makes sense to determine the specifics of the collections of the companies you are interested in. After all, designers pre-calculate different options for the stylistic and functional combination of appliances in the interior.
There are many companies on the Russian market, each of which occupies its own niche. Designs and technologies, the purpose of manufactured devices, the materials used, design and style, the degree of replication of products, etc., can be peculiar.e. As a rule, saturation of space with lamps from one collection is doomed to good luck. A certain internal integrity is marked today by the products of every serious, self-respecting company.
Man was looking for fire ever brighter, but at the same time safer. Therefore, it is natural that oil lamps spread in Egypt, and later in Greece. They were stone pillars or bowls, inside of which there was a vessel with a wick. In the III century. BC e. A model of a lamp came to Europe from the East in the form of a small clay boat with a spout. In size, it was comparable to a human palm.
In the 1st century in Rome, bronze lamps began to be made. At the same time, the famous candelabra appeared. The plinth for them was cast in the form of an animal paw, and the stand was sometimes made in the form of a cupid, a satyr or a female figure. This artistic idea has survived the centuries and flourishes to this day. Instead of the smoky and sparkling torches that servants carried down a dark street in front of their master or fixed in wall holders, Roman artisans began to make oil bronze lanterns, round or polygonal. Their walls were covered with bone plates, leather or oiled cloth, and a convex lid with holes for smoke was supplied with a short chain.
In Rome and Byzantium, bronze bowls for fire began to be hung on chains from the ceiling or a pin fixed to the wall. AndUntil now, lamps in the form of crowns with conical bowls adorn the Cathedral of St.Sophia in Constantinople.
Empire, Art Deco, Bauhaus
French family company LUCIENGAU works in both classical and modern styles. Lighting fixtures from the classic collection are named, respectively, “Victorian”, “Flemish”, “Empire”. ATin most cases, this is not an approximate, but an exact reproduction of the historical style in all details. Such accuracy helps to choose chandeliers or sconces for the interior corresponding to a certain era, without fear that they will “fall out” of the situation. The company uses the technique of manual casting of bronze. Sand molds are used, which are broken after the lamp is made, so that all items of the classic collection exist in limited quantities.
ATchandeliers used crystal company SWAROVSKI (Austria). Bronze items are gilded or patinated. On request, you can change the standard model. For example, increase the number of chandelier horns, use chains instead of rods and vice versa. ATcollections of modern design, of particular interest are lamps in the Bauhaus and Ardeco. ATmodern fixtures rarely use expensive and sophisticated technologies– the materials here are simple: metal (chrome-plated or silver-plated), glass, plastic.
Not everyone knows how candelabra differ from candlesticks. Candelabra are floor or table, they are distinguished by their impressive size and a large number of candle horns. Candlestick– compact table stand for candles (from1 to5).
A variety of candelabra inXVIIIin. became girandoles resembling small trees. Crystal pendants sparkled on their metal rods and brackets, among which were porcelain figurines of people and animals, baskets of fruits and flowers. Round girandoles were installed on a special table, semicircular– on the fireplace, and, as a rule, in pairs.
The classic collection is mainly suitable for rooms with high ceilings, as the chandeliers are quite large in size. However, if necessary, you should ask the seller if there is a smaller model that interests you. As for the modern collection, its models will fit into any apartment. You can choose the device for the bathroom– some lamps are made in a thermomoisture-proof version. Prices for classic design chandeliers range from $500 to $700, modern– from$150 to $350.
If you dream of resurrecting a long-lost great-grandmother’s chandelier, left only on a brittle photo from the family archive, then you– tomasters of the company KALMAR. The artists of this Austrian company restore lighting devices of past centuries according to old sketches, photographs, paintings. So, according to photographs and engravings, all the lighting fixtures of the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow were recreated. BUTrestored according to the sketch XIXin. the chandelier was returned to the Tretyakov Gallery, to the main staircase. Exactly such a chandelier adorned the gallery during the life of Pavel Mikhailovich. The firm works to order, but it is possible to purchase a ready-made “double”. Price? For example, table candelabra (huge marble vases with bronze horns) based on sketches from the Grand Kremlin Palace cost $200 piece.
Here is a British company CHELSOModdly enough, does not produce lamps in the English style, but offers products made in historical styles (fromancient Roman classics to modern), and modern fantasies on these topics. The collection includes a complete set of lighting fixtures– from a chandelier to a table lamp. Crystal is used only Bohemian (it is cheaper than, for example, SVAROVSKI). This affects the cost of products, but does not reduce their quality. The sizes of the chandeliers are different, you can choose a copy for a small apartment or a luxurious country mansion. Even if the collection did not find a central chandelier of a suitable size, you will definitely be selected for lighting from other types of fixtures. The cost of the most expensive chandelier does not exceed $1300, and the most expensive table lamp will cost $300.
The French company ATELIER SEDAP actually specializes in gypsum stucco, but recently it has been making “gifts” to designers, making lighting fixtures from gypsum. The firm’s collection mainly consists of a variety of sconces. The luminaires are produced only in white, which allows designers and artists to paint or tint them in any shade, as well as paint them taking into account the stylistic features of the interior. Special additives in the form of resins make gypsum impact-resistant and heat-resistant, so that you can not be afraid of cracking. Caring for these bras is also easy.– they can be washed and cleaned. Buyers will be delighted by the opportunity to create the play of light on walls and ceilings, which was popular during the Bauhaus era. Moreover, some models repeat the famous masterpieces 1930syears. Bras are small (30-55cm), floor and ceiling lights can be different– from small (height 30cm) to huge (220cm). The cost of wall lamps ranges from $70 to $250, ceiling– from $150 to $600.
Wall lamps with reflectors made of mirror or polished metal first became widespread in Italy. They reflected the light and decorated the walls at the same time. The fastening of such devices was carried out using twisted brackets. In France, this type of lighting device was called “sconce” (bra in French– support). The first sconces were a simple oval shape (from30 to150cm), but over time they became more complex and more intricately decorated. In our time, wall-mounted lamps are commonly called differently. So, all devices with horns or brackets receding from the wall are called sconces; light sources covered by a screen pressed against the wall,– wall lamps; ahanging bowl or lamp shade– wall hanging lamp. Approximately the same classification exists for ceiling lights. Lush, front, free-hanging lighting fixtures are called “chandelier”; simpler ones are called ceiling pendant lights; and devices that are tightly attached to the ceiling are called ceiling lights.
Amber, porcelain and alabaster
Firm VAUGHAN (Great Britain), in contrast to those listed above, pays attention to the stylistic unity of the entire interior. Andreleases “inassistance to the designer” furniture, fabrics and accessories to match their lamps.
Most of the collection consists of table lamps. These are either vase-shaped models in the style of the era of Queen Victoria, or candlesticks-columns with a lampshade. Glass stands are common (vertical racks on which horns with lamps or the lamp itself are attached). Brass and bronze are patinated, covered with gold or silver. Lampshades are made from paper and cardboard, as well as from fabrics ranging from inexpensive cotton to silk and leather. Vases are made of porcelain and earthenware with various decorations (inVictorian and Georgian England), as well as hardwood (varnished or left natural). ATcollections contain natural stone (marble, granite) and alabaster, and in the most original models, alabaster is combined with amber.
The base of the lamp and the lampshade can be varied by selecting options from the catalogs. So that each buyer is able to create a unique lighting fixture that exists in a single copy.
ATcatalogs there are models for almost all rooms– from the bedroom to the office. The exception will be, perhaps, only for children, since the materials from which these lamps are made require careful handling. The cost of fixtures– from $150 to $5000, depending on the size and complexity of the decor.
For “noble nests”
Among representatives of Russian emigration and lovers of traditional interiors, lamps from the British company HYDE are especially popular. Most of them are made according to samples from Russian royal palaces and estates. Despite this, the customer can make changes to the existing design. This applies to the size of the product, and the number of horns, and even decor. Hyde– the company is not large and produces lighting fixtures in small batches. But their price is not particularly high. The company’s technologists are trying to automate as many stages of production as possible. However, the final finishing is carried out exclusively by hand. Palace collections can combine not only large chandeliers, but also their replicas in a reduced version. Prices– from $150 to $1000.
In France, crystal chandeliers as an element of decorating the homes of the nobility came into fashion in the era of LouisXIV. Since then, the French word “chandelier” (fromluster– shining, giving light) took root throughout Europe. At the same time, the shapes of pendant lighting fixtures, the number of candles, the richness of decoration, the outlines of crystal pendants, and even the methods of cutting them varied in different countries. ATIn Italy, the chandelier was decorated with pieces of crystal in the shape of a sphere. ATVictorian England was also fashionable chandeliers with round pendants, only larger. The French loved large oval and small octagonal pendants. ATlate XIXin. drop-shaped pendants appeared, and in the modern era– inthe form of narrow round or rectangular tubes, as well as crystal cubes. AT1909inIn Paris, Hector Guimard patented an elegant kind of crystal chandelier. Thin vertical crystal sticks were attached to the bronze rim, and threads with cut or polished crystal beads hung between them or behind them. ATthe result was the effect of a waterfall or fountain.
In his own way, he is engaged in historical stylizations and ANDY THORNTON. The company manufactures everything that may be required to decorate a house in a certain style,– from stairs, furniture and small accessories to outdoor decor elements. Of course, she cannot ignore the lighting fixtures. The collections are named by region and style. The whole range is offered, from chandeliers to small table lamps. Along with expensive materials such as bronze, crystal, glass, alabaster, stone, there are also more simple– plastic, inexpensive alloys. Andalthough all production is industrial in nature, the quality of the instruments is excellent. BUTthe use of simple technologies significantly reduces their cost. Curious that ANDY THORNTON– not a concern, but a small family firm. Quality control here is the most picky, and lots are limited to a few hundred pieces. ATthe collection includes lamps of the widest stylistic spectrum– from “ancient” to made in the technique of Tiffany. There are street lamps of all eras stylized for the interior, as well as industrial lamps of the XIX century.– early XXin. Andeven a series of “ship” and “mail” lamps. Prices range from $70 to $2000.
In 1895, the American designer Louis-Comfort Tiffany began to sell his famous bronze lamps under stained glass lampshades with images of plants and insects (recall that at that time Art Nouveau dominated in Russia, in Europe– arnouveau or art nouveau, which, in fact, is one and the same). Toglass was glued to the lead frame with resins. Today, Tiffany’s followers are scattered all over the world. ATThe design of modern lamps uses both original sketches of the beginning of the century and modern drawings in this style, and instead of expensive bronze and dangerous lead, an alloy of plastic and metal is used, similar to patinated bronze.
For boats and yachts
Another line of business of KALMAR– lighting fixtures for yachts and boats. The technologies used in the manufacture of chandeliers and sconces with a special fastening system make them not only works of art, but also technical masterpieces. Special processing prevents the crystal from fogging from salt water, the pendants do not ring when rocking, and the artistic perception of the chandeliers does not change even with a strong list of the ship. The best traditional materials are used for the luminaires– bronze, brass, SWAROVSKI crystal, porcelain (Meissen and Limoges), natural stone, Murano glass, Damascus silk. Masters have the opportunity to use unique materials– those from which the lamps of the past were made. The price depends on the order and materials used. A small ceiling chandelier made of crystal with gilded bronze can cost all $3000.
Firm SWAROVSKI– the largest supplier of crystal worldwide, to all manufacturers of chandeliers. The special cut of crystal invented by the company and the high content of lead in it give the pendants a brilliant radiance. Crystal of the highest quality is called Strass and is used only in very expensive chandeliers. Even the smallest pendants have a special marking, a kind of SWAROVSKI quality mark, and a certificate. The high cost of pendants in this category is explained by the completely hand-cutting of each of them. Less expensive (but no less high-quality) Spectrum crystal is made by pressing facets. It has less lead. This technology creates a special effect– pendants look “aged”. All products of the company have a special coating that does not allow dust and dirt to accumulate on the surface of the crystal. This ensures a bright glow of the pendants and, of course, makes it easier to care for them. Various forms of pendants– from faceted balls to petals, stars and drops.
Straight from the anvil
The family company ROBERS (Germany) became famous for forging from iron and cast iron. The stylistic basis for all models was Gothic and Romanesque. Lamps are made both according to the sketches of the company’s designers, and to order. “Specialty of the house”– a crown-shaped chandelier with several lamp bowls. Sconces of various models are also forged, but more often in the form of torches and torch holders. Dark metal, patina, chains– all this allows you to create the feeling of a medieval castle. ATIn addition to the lamps, the company produces wrought iron furniture. The dimensions of the objects are by no means castle-like, but quite suitable for ordinary apartments with low ceilings. Although, of course, these chandeliers will look best in a country house. Of course, each lamp is forged by hand. Prices, depending on the size of the product, fluctuate within $150-700.
In the XIII-XIV centuries. in the forges of Catalonia, a new technique for making wrought iron lamps was born. Spanish craftsmen created a light structure of twisted iron rods, decorated at the ends with heavy buds and open forged flowers. There were no “lighting craftsmen” then, but sculptors, carvers, casters, potters and furniture makers also made lamps. This ancient approach is practiced to this day, when, for example, an architect or furniture designer creates lighting fixtures along the way.
Copper Lantern and Clay Lamp
Making small batches of traditional Italian street lamps (XV-XVII centuries) made of glass in a bronze frame is handled by the Venetian company SIRU (onisland of Murano). All lanterns are created by hand, with strict observance of the old proportions. The only difference between copies and originals– Variations in size and a more modern way of fastening. Glass– transparent or cobalt-colored (blue). It also has gold foil on it. Oddly enough, an ordinary city apartment has become an ideal space for such lamps. The cost of products ranges from $150 to $500.
On the same island of Murano, LA MURRINA, in very limited quantities, produces its collection of real Venetian chandeliers made entirely of glass. The forms are modern, the design changes from year to year. This allows you to follow fashion without losing the tradition of manufacturing and the idea itself. The second LA MURRINA collection includes Bauhaus-style lamps and small but very interesting replicas of ancient Roman oil lamps. These lighting fixtures are made of high quality glass with minimal use of metal. ATthey demonstrate all the achievements of the glass blowers of the island of Murano: the purity of glass, the skillful technique of inter-glass gilding, sparkling air bubbles, millefiore, mosaic glass, milky glass. Chandeliers look better in a room where you can see them from above (say, on the stairs of a country house). The cost of classic chandeliers LAMURRINA makes up $400-3000. A product from a modern collection will cost $100-700.
But lovers of antiquity and exoticism should pay attention to clay lamps in Japanese, Romanesque and Gothic styles. They are made by FULLIGINE masters.
During the Renaissance, artisans from Italy, France and Belgium spread wrought iron floor lamps throughout Europe. These were the ancestors of modern floor lamps. Their thin quadrangular standing on a tripod was crowned with a three-tiered crown of horizontal hoops, decreasing upwards. ATunlike candelabra, these lamps did not have horns– cups with spikes were placed directly on these three hoops around the central spire.
The production of lamps quite unusual for Italy– table lamps in the style of Victorian England– the firm is engaged ITALAMP. This part of the collection of porcelain table lamps under shades, despite the English style, has an Italian “pronunciation”– painting in the style of traditional Italian majolica. There is also a German mesh painting in the style of the Meissen manufactories. As for the chandeliers of this manufacturer, their bronze parts are covered with muted gilding, and this distinguishes ITALAMP from colleagues who make French and German style crystal chandeliers. Nice offer for lovers of modern– Ceiling and wall lamps in the “Prague style” (Czech modern) with frosted glass and floral patterns.
In general, if you need a lamp made of porcelain or with elements of porcelain, you should contact, first of all, British companies. The tradition of the Victorian table lamp is still followed by many UK firms, including those listed above.
Glass apple and bronze rose
The famous and unique Florentine “flower style” is represented by the Italian company PASSERI INTERNATIONAL, which we have selected from several candidates for its refinement and good taste, as well as the quality of work. Traditional wrought bronze lamps, decorated with the same bronze flowers, leaves and, less often, fruits, have been produced by this manufacturer since 1961.Chandeliers and table lamps form the core of the firm’s collection. Ceiling, wall, floor lamps and sconces are also offered. ATa set for lighting fixtures, you can pick up a table or a mirror in a bronze frame with a similar forged decor. The entire collection breathes the charm of antiquity. This is facilitated by the obligatory patination of bronze, which comes in different shades.– from dark amber to almost black. Either way, the tone is still muted. Elements of the collection will harmoniously fit into the design of an apartment or a country house. The cost of lamps– from $150 to $1000.
Venetian “fruit baskets” made of glass and metal are presented by the Italian company TREDICI DESIGN. This perfect style XVIIcentury embodied in chandeliers, sconces, wall lamps. The bronze forging of the frame is carried out in Florence under the direction of the owner of the company, Daniele Tredici, and the fruits, leaves and flowers are blown on the island of Murano. ATIn addition to the traditional old design, Tredichi has developed his own, more modern style, according to which small glass fruits and vegetables are fixed on the chandelier instead of crystal pendants. AT“waste” is also used as a decor– extracts obtained during the chipping of the glass mass from the master’s tube. Fruits and vegetables are then processed by hand: veins are engraved on leaves, fruits and flowers. It is also remarkable in these chandeliers that under different lighting there is a different play of light. Therefore, even when the lamps are off, the products make a strong artistic impression. For a city apartment, the chandeliers of this company are ideal because they do not require any particularly lush surroundings and fit perfectly into rooms with low ceilings. These chandeliers look more elegant and sophisticated than classic crystal ones. Price– from $200 to $2700.
The love of Italians for luxury was manifested in a special way in the lamps created in Florence and on the island of Murano. The famous Florentine “flower style” grew out of the rough Catalan wrought designs. “Flower” lamps were made of metal, various forged flowers were fixed on the horns. The metal was painted, patinated, gilded. In Venice, on the island of Murano, there was a different style– fruit baskets ATIn this case, glass fruits were hung or planted on a metal frame. ATXVIIIin. lamps were decorated not only with glass, but also with garlands of pearls. It is possible that elegant glass and crystal chandeliers originated from these products.
Ratio, naivety, irony…
The list of companies involved in the production of modern style lamps is huge, and it is impossible not to mention at least a few of them. For example, ARTEMIDE (Germany)is a German design house specializing in minimalist and high tech products. Her compatriot INHO MAURER produces fashionable “exclusive light” in the style of pop art, and TOBIAS GRAU, also a bright representative of high tech and minimalist styles, creates ultra-modern models in imitation of “hard” industrial lamps. Part of the ZICOLI collection (Germany)– innaive pop art, and part– instrictly functional Bauhaus. “Crazy” technocratic design is offered by TRIBALE (Italy), which creates lamps from car shock absorbers and other spare parts. The unexpected beauty of heavy iridescent massive glass surprises with geometric lamps in the Bauhaus style from FLAVER (Italy). The Italian company ANTONANGELI has its own subtle manner. Her lampsis a rational bauhaus, refracted in Italian, plus a little bit of a light version of high tech style.
The perfect simplicity of the lamps, created by the masters of the Bauhaus school, does not cease to excite modern masters. After all, then the designers were able to find a compromise between functionality and beauty. Metal tubes, large sheets of glass, frosted and clear, chromed surfaces– all this is actively used today. The decoration of products made in the style of minimalism was the texture of the materials themselves.– iron, nickel, chromium, glass, leather, wood. Forms are emphatically concise– rectangle, prism, cylinder, sphere.
COPYRIGHTa subsidiary of LUCEFAN (Italy), works in pop art style. COPYRIGHT makes objects mischievous, modern, ironic over everything classical. These lamps always remind of something, but it cannot be said that we have a fake in front of us. Rather, we can talk about today’s rethinking of the creations of the past. The materials used are modern– nickel, chrome, glass, plastic. Luminaires are designed for zonal lighting, as they use low power lamps. All models are made in small batches. Price– from $250 to $500.
But SOTHIS (Italy) in its lighting fixtures successfully combines high tech, minimalism, and the spirit of the same Bauhaus. The winner of the Frankfurt design fair, the company produces bold lamps for bold people. Possibility of using high power lampsis another feature of this product. monolithic glass– white, blue, black and gray– incombined with light perforated metal makes an unforgettable impression. It is enhanced by original shapes reminiscent of spaceships and stealth fighters. Of course, when choosing such a lamp for an apartment or house, you need to seriously consider how it will fit into the room. Price– from $200 to $1500.
Flicking the switch…
Today, perhaps, it is no longer possible to find a lighting device that would not repeat a well-known image or would not be a variation on a familiar theme. BUTSince modern appliances are made in various styles, among this variety there is sure to be one that fits into a given interior. So to create an integral image of space, it remains only to choose the right lighting device.
By design and purpose, the luminaire can be a source of either central or zonal light. Zone luminaires are equipped with lamps of lower power, and sometimes they combine several lamps in one arrangement or another. ATIn each collection, you can find lighting fixtures for both high power lamps and energy-saving sources. The size and power of lamps in a set of fixtures from one collection may vary. Of course, most often the devices are designed for a standard lamp in the cartridge, but there are models for minions, finger lamps, and in ultra-modern collections– adapted for xenon, argon sources and fluorescent lamps.
Different sources give illumination that differs in color, tone and strength. Therefore, when buying appliances, you must definitely light them up, at the same time “turning on” your imagination,– to imagine how the lamp will look in your interior. After all, the effect produced by a lamp in a store can be completely different from that which occurs in an apartment. It depends on the height and size of the room, the general illumination, the color of the walls and ceiling, furniture, curtains, carpets. Even in small spaces, lamps look better as a set. Plafonchiki dot ceiling halogen lamps can be stylistically “supported” by lamps near mirrors and in niches. A table lamp will be complemented by a floor lamp in the same style. Chandeliers look bettercompany” with sconces and hidden lighting. Here we come to another important problem– creation of a complete lighting system for the apartment. But that’s a completely different story…
The editors thank the DESART studio, the HALL OSCAR galleries, DECART“OLD ENGLAND“, salons ENGLISH INTERIORS, “INTERIOR GALLERY”, “STRAZ”, companies “SKOL”, FREX, store “LAMPS ONM.ORDYNKE”, KALMAR company (Austria), ITALAMP (Italy), ROBERS (Germany) for their help in preparing the material.