Design “LABORATORY RS” Photo by V. Nefedov
The author’s plafond “Torch Procession” performed by Igor Silaev
In stained glass workshops, you can buy a ceiling lamp of the author’s work of almost any shape. So, for example, the Tiffany technique allows you to create three-dimensional objects, and a rich selection of colored glass will provide the desired color scheme. ISS
The choice on the Russian market of shades is quite wide. The most common lamps are Italian manufacturers, other European countries are less widely represented in this market segment:
a, b– LGD (Italy);
in– LUCEPLAN (Italy);
G– KOLARZ (Austria);
d– LAMP (Italy);
e– SLOVELUCE (Italy)
Photo by D. Minkin
The lantern does not have to occupy the lion’s share of the ceiling area and become the key object of the interior. “Air” design with an area of 1-1.5m2made in neutral light colors, does not take too much attention and will fit perfectly into the interior of the living room or bedroom
a– LAMPE (Italy);
b– Milan (Italy);
in– BANKAMP (Germany);
G– the ceiling of the Goggle lamp is covered with a special film that changes color depending on the angle of incidence of light;
d– COPYRIGHT (Italy);
e– a sensor is built into the model from STEINEL, which reacts to the presence of a person in the room
A stained-glass ceiling (ISS) made of colored frosted glass will hardly solve the problem of lighting, but it will certainly cope with the decorating role
Photo by V. Nefedov
The ceiling of the room can be complex, have two, three or more levels, but it is desirable to build them along the perimeter of the walls, leaving the center as free as possible. “LABORATORY RS”
Ceiling lamp from the MKS, built into a plasterboard structure
Photo by V. Nefedov
Ceiling structures with a large number of lamps, as a rule, become the visual center of the room. At the same time, losses in the height of the room are minimal and can be 10-15cm.
Original ceiling light Tile from LUCEPLAN (Italy), as if assembled from several separate components, will perfectly fit into the interior, decorated in high tech style. Thanks to the collapsible design of the ceiling, replacing burnt out light bulbs is not difficult
a– Atreo from Milan (Italy);
b– PUTZLER (Germany);
in– KOLARZ (Austria);
G– manufacturers of the Metropoly luminaire (LUCEPLAN) saved us the hassle of changing light bulbs. The plafond does not need to be removed, it is enough to open the door with a screwdriver, “locking” the lamp;
d, e– FRANCO (Italy)
The ceiling of a city apartment has long ceased to be a boring white field, decorated in the center with a crystal flower of a hard-to-find Czech chandelier. Realistic imitation of the starry sky, fantastic lamps, the most complex plasterboard and tension structures… Interior designers, remembering the undeservedly forgotten field of activity, do their best to highlight what has hitherto remained in the shadows. Andthe only thing that limits the flight of their imagination,is the height of the room. It is from her that you need to “dance”, organizing the basic lighting of the room.
Ceiling lamp, or non-flying saucer
The height of the ceilings in city apartments, alas, does not always make it possible to realize the daring fantasies of architects. Moreover, often the residents of the metropolis do not have the opportunity to use a chandelier even on a short suspension. The best option in this case is (in addition to the rail or string system) the so-called dome-shaped ceiling lamp, “sitting” with its base on the ceiling. Visually without weighing down the space, it creates a feeling of freedom and “air”. The light from the lamps is diffused by translucent glass, resulting in a soft, almost shadow-free glow. Not surprisingly, such “flying saucers” are in stable demand.
As already mentioned, such lamps have a basis– a metal (rarely plastic) disc-reflector fixed to the ceiling, on which 1-6 cartridges are located. Of course, the more lamps in the ceiling, the higher the temperature inside rises, so all these lamps indicate power limitations (for example, 5 bulbs of 60W). Inserted here, as a rule, incandescent or fluorescent lamps, less often– halogen. The choice of light source largely depends on the material of the ceiling. If it is concrete or drywall, the lamps can be anything. But in the case of a wooden floor or PVC tensile structure, which are afraid of high temperatures, energy-saving sources are preferable, since they practically do not emit heat.
The method of fixing the ceiling depends on the material of the ceiling. If the interfloor overlap is wooden, it will be enough to screw in 3-4 screws. Concrete, on the other hand, will require installation on dowels, and in the case of drywall, butterfly anchors cannot be dispensed with (they can withstand loads up to 15kg).
The difficulty that the owner of such a lamp will inevitably face,– Replace burnt out light bulbs. Removing a large ceiling is not easy, there is a high risk of breaking it. But this is another argument in favor of energy-saving lamps: they not only consume about 5 times less electricity, but also last much longer (a conventional incandescent lamp is designed for about 1000 hours, and its economical counterpart– by 12000). Of course, the cost of such light sources is quite high.– about 400rub. But, taking into account a significant reduction in electricity consumption, it can be argued that in 3-4 years the costs will pay off in full.
Wealth of choice
The lion’s share of the market of both lamps in general and ceiling lamps in particular belongs to Italian manufacturers in Russia– FABIAN, MURANO DUE, ITRE and many more. The choice of models is simply frighteningly large, so that anyone, even the most demanding customer, will surely be able to find a sample to their liking. For connoisseurs of the classics, shades of colored frosted glass, decorated with openwork floral ornaments, are suitable (for example, from LAMP, price– $380-650). Firm LGD ($70-170) relies on decorating ceiling lamps with color, and FRANCO, whose price range varies within $180-370, prefers to play on the unusual forms. Moving away from the traditional segment of the sphere, the company’s designers offer a choice of ellipses, “hearts” and “drops” of frosted glass, finished with white metal.
Adherents of high tech style may like factory products LUCEPLAN. Lightdisk series ($250-430) with white metal cases is in high demand among young people. A bold design decision can be called the Goggle model ($116) with a shade made of heat-resistant plastic covered with a holographic film that changes color depending on the lighting. Such a “chameleon” will come in handy everywhere– from the living room to the bedroom. ATMetropoli ($185-740) from LUCEPLAN, designed for both indoor and outdoor lighting, the problem of replacing light bulbs was originally solved. The glass cover serves as a kind of door, “locked” with a screw. FROMusing a Phillips screwdriver, it is easy to open it and replace the burned-out element. For outdoor installation, the screw helps to securely seal the ceiling.
COPYRIGHT, in turn, offers small and relatively inexpensive ($120) lamps with shades of blue, yellow and green. They are quite suitable for children. True, in fairness it should be noted that here the manufacturer sacrifices functionality for decorativeness.– the more saturated the color of the ceiling, the less light it is able to let through.
Other European manufacturers are less widely represented in this market segment. You can note the lamps from the German factory BANKAMP, which are suitable for a buyer who decides, having once forked out, for 10-15 years to forget about the problem of ceiling lighting. Thanks to a strict, elegant and unobtrusive design, models from Germany will harmoniously fit into any interior and will not go out of fashion for a long time. True, their prices are slightly higher than the average level ($550-1200), but, given the above, this can be reconciled. Unpretentious design “plates” from STEINEL ($170-400) will delight lovers of high technology. The built-in sensor reacts to the presence of people in the room. This lamp turns on and off on its own. KOLARS (Austria) offers a choice of massive ceiling lamps in a strict frame made of brass and copper or their complete opposite– translucent “plates” decorated with colored glass elements. General price range– $100-350. Asian countries have been asserting themselves quite boldly lately.– Malaysia, Taiwan and China. Of course, the quality of KING LONG or MING VANG products is inferior to their Italian counterparts, but the democratic price of products ($10-80) makes them welcome guests in many Russian apartments.
And, of course, we should not forget about domestic producers. A lot of shades with a simple ornament (for example, in the form of a “Greek runner”) can be found in countless construction markets. In addition, some large companies offer products assembled from components manufactured to their order in Russia, Italy, Malaysia and China. ATIn particular, the company “DOMOSVET” is able to present quite competitive products at very affordable prices ($5-50).
Happy owners of apartments in which the height of the ceilings allows you to donate 15-20cm, they can mount the so-called ceiling lamp in the living room or bedroom. Dictionary-glossary “Terms of the Russian architectural heritage” by V. I. Pluzhnikov from 1985G. defines it as an elevated part of the roof, which includes glazed openings for the passage of daylight into the room, limited only by internal walls. But this definition is more applicable to mansions, exhibition and shopping centers. ToFortunately, there is another interpretation of this concept. When it comes to urban apartments, a ceiling lamp is usually understood as a structure made of a supporting frame made of wood, metal or plastic, with glass elements fixed in it, which is mounted in a false ceiling. At the same time, the lamps themselves and electrical wiring are hidden in the space between the base and false ceilings.
The plafond of the lantern can be solid or openwork and include a variety of decorative elements, such as bronze grilles and ornamental friezes. So that the author’s ceiling does not clog the interior, he needs a “response”– a decorative element similar in design. It can be a lamp, a door, an interior partition or another object made using the same technique.
Tothe choice of a place for a stained-glass ceiling should be approached very responsibly. The stained-glass window assumes some monumentality; it requires space to view it. Obviously, a large stained-glass ceiling in a small city apartment can look bulky and out of place. Typically, such structures adorn the halls of country houses and indoor pools. But small, with an area of 1-2m2the light panel will fit perfectly into the interior of the living room, bedroom or spacious hallway.
Design. Before you start creating a ceiling light, you need to consider its design. As a rule, structures of this kind are a striking element of the interior, so it is better to entrust the development of the project to a professional. After the design is thought out and the glasses corresponding in color and texture are selected, the future lantern is depicted in full size on a sheet of thick paper or cardboard. Then, according to the diagram, markings are applied to the ceiling, indicating the points of attachment of the structure and the installation of light sources (the electrical cable must be laid under them before the frame is installed). If the ceiling includes stained glass elements, they are assembled by connecting pieces of glass into a common canvas. If the shape of the lantern suggests the presence of curved planes, the assembly is carried out on a plaster template that corresponds to the inner surface of the future ceiling. Glass is inserted after fixing the frame.
Lantern-plafond. As mentioned above, the stained-glass ceiling plafond may include stained-glass elements. There are several technologies for this. The first and most simple– installation of colored glass in a wooden frame. ATIn this case, the frame of the desired shape (both straight and curved) is made of rails with an inverted T-shaped profile. After the frame is fixed to the ceiling, colored glass or its plastic substitute is inserted into the grooves (recall that several sections must be made removable to provide access to lamps and electrical wiring). The whole construction will cost $450-500.
Another option for creating a stained glass ceiling– the so-called classical stained-glass window. ATin this case, it is assembled on lead profiles of two-tee section (H-shaped). ATat the joints they are fastened with lead solder (brass, aluminum or stainless steel can also be used as a material for profiles). Profile thickness– 6 and 8mm, glass– 4-5mm. The advantage of this assembly method is that it becomes possible to connect rather large pieces of glass to each other. But we must remember that the frame that carries the stained-glass window should have a relatively small (50-60 cm2) the area of the sections, otherwise the glass sheet will sag over time. In addition, if lead is used as the main fastening material, it is desirable to make some internal contours from brass to increase strength. There is another way to protect the stained glass window from sagging– lay a transparent three-millimeter glass under it, which will give the structure additional rigidity. But if the area of an individual fragment is small (up to 1m2) and the risk of deflection is minimal, the substrate can be omitted altogether.
And, finally, stained glass shades are made in the so-called Tiffany technique. The essence of the method is that colored glass, cut or cast in the desired shape, is wrapped around the perimeter with a special copper tape (“foil”), then rolled and soldered with others, forming one or another combination. This technology allows you to create quite complex compositions that include very small details, which is not always possible in a classic lead stained glass window. The advantage of this technology is also that it allows you to create three-dimensional interior design items.– floor lamps, sconces, chandeliers. But here, as in the case of the classic lead stained-glass window, the problem of possible sagging is acute. However, it is solved in the same way– dividing the panel into sections with a powerful lead frame or using a substrate. A square meter of stained glass like “Tiffany” or classic lead will cost the customer $700-1500, depending on the complexity of the panel and the brand of glass used.
Metamorphoses of glass
Now a few words about what metamorphoses the glass undergoes before being installed in the ceiling. There are several basic ways to add decorative stained glass.
Folding (cutting) creates the effect of light refraction. Glass treated in this way can look like semi-precious stones, crystal or mother-of-pearl inserted into the frame. But to get a wide chamfer that looks most impressive, the glass must be at least 6-8mm, which is 2-3mm thicker than the window counterpart. This, however, will lead to an increase in the mass of the product, which may create additional difficulties during its installation. Such an operation costs $90-600 for 1 line m.
fusing (from English fusing– melting, melting, merging) means that pieces of colored glass are superimposed on each other like an application and then sintered in a special furnace, forming a monolithic composition with a pronounced relief. This is a rather complicated and expensive technology (1m2 will cost $700-1000), it is rarely used to create an independent decor. Usually such panels are elements of a classical lead stained-glass window.
Another popular glass deep processing method– the so-called “sandblasting”. The material is exposed to a jet of compressed air and abrasive, as a result, depressions are formed on the surface, creating the effect of a three-dimensional image. The thicker the glass (minimum– 6mm, optimum– tenmm), the more pronounced the effect. But not only aesthetic considerations are important here.– Separate requirements relate to the strength of the product. A square meter of such a panel costs $250.
Tounfortunately, it is not always possible to hang a real stained-glass lantern (for example, due to insufficient strength of the interfloor ceiling or for financial reasons). The solution may be imitation on plexiglass or acrylic glass. The desired effect is achieved through special translucent films that copy glass of various colors and textures. A self-adhesive tape resembling a lead profile gives such a panel authenticity. A square meter of this “pseudo-stained glass” will cost $200-500.
Let there be light!
Ceiling lamp decorates rather than illuminates the room– The percentage of light passing through colored glass is relatively small. But this does not mean that the organization of competent stained glass lighting can be neglected. Too strong light will kill its color, and not bright enough will not convey the effect of glass transparency.
We can say that all modern lamps are more or less suitable for ceiling lights, but each type has its pros and cons. So, “halogens” are durable, economical (compared to incandescent lamps).– up to two times) and have almost one hundred percent color reproduction. But, unfortunately, they give a rather narrowly focused light beam– 10, 38 or 60. It creates a light spot on the glass surface, which, as a rule, does not look the best. For the same reason, LEDs are rarely used. Incandescent lamps are used much more often. But at the same time, they should not be installed so that the rays fall perpendicular to the plane of the ceiling– direct light “pierces” and discolors the glass.
Compared to incandescent lamps, fluorescent light sources are five times more economical, last a long time and have a rich color gamut. In total, there are 5 main types of fluorescent lamps, the “warmest” of them (2700K) corresponds to the range of a conventional incandescent lamp, the coldest (6500TO)– daylight. But there are also colored subspecies– green, red, blue, as well as specialized light sources, for example, pink, designed for showcases in the meat departments of grocery stores. These lamps are also used in ceiling structures. The desired color is selected depending on the range of stained glass: warm– to warm, cold– to the cold.
There are two options for mounting fluorescent lamps. If the glass has a matte texture, the lamps can be installed directly below it in a special fastener. If the material is transparent, it is better to place them around the perimeter– to create the effect of diffused light. The ceiling in this case is painted white or covered with foil insulation– a material consisting of foil and insulation, which serves as a reflector, cuts off heat from the lamps and, if necessary, hides the wiring underneath.
A starter box is required to turn on a fluorescent light. Until recently, an inductive unit with a so-called starter start was used almost everywhere (today it has been banned in many countries, but Russia is not yet one of them). The fact is that these devices operate at a low frequency (50 Hz), at which the lamps begin to flash, and this does not have the best effect on the human nervous system. Electronic units (instant start) with a frequency of 30-40 thousand Hz do not create such a problem.
Returning to the topic of installation, we note that from the point of view of saving effort, it is easiest to buy ready-made lamps in the store and install them in the ceiling structure as they are. But on a financial basis, it makes more sense to purchase lamps and launchers separately, and then create the desired lighting system yourself. This option is cheaper (on average 2-2.5 times), since not every lamp will require a separate housing– One or two light sources can be connected to one launcher.
Dancing from the ceiling
Having dealt with the methods of creating a ceiling and the principles of lighting, we will consider the technology of its installation. It should be noted that there are two ways to install a ceiling light. The first– by increasing the false ceiling along the perimeter of the ceiling, the second– by inserting into a ready-made drywall construction. But in both cases, the supporting frame is attached directly to the intermediate floor. The exception is small (less than 1m2) ceiling stained-glass windows. Since the mass of the glass panel in this case is relatively small, there is no need for additional reinforcement. Andif the internal contours of the niche are “tied” with steel jumpers to the base ceiling, the frame can be fixed directly on the profiles of the false structure.
The lantern can also be placed in a ready-made structure, for example, in an ARMSTRONG suspended ceiling. To do this, it is enough to mount additional lamps, replace the plasterboard sections with transparent ones, and repaint the metal frame or close it with wooden slats. ATIt is better to use light translucent plastic as a material for ceiling lamps. Glass is undesirable, since the fittings designed for drywall may not withstand the extra load.
Another option– embed a ceiling light in a stretch ceiling structure, for example BARRISOL. ATIn this case, an additional frame is arranged at the location of the lantern and a ceiling panel is pulled over it. It turns out an opening into which the lighting system will be mounted. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the PVC film used in such structures is afraid of high temperatures, which means that there may be restrictions on the type, number and power of lamps.
The installation of the lantern begins with the laying of electrical cables under the lamps. Sometimes a sheet of foil isol is glued to the ceiling at the place where the frame is attached. Having fixed and connected the lamps, you can proceed with the installation of the frame. There are several ways to install it. Most common– a system of hook-shaped suspensions, one of which is attached to the frame of the lantern, the other– to the base ceiling. The coupling connecting them allows you to adjust the installation height. Mounting on steel suspensions is also possible, the gaps between which should be 60-80see But in both cases, holes are drilled in the ceiling plate according to the marking, where metal anchors (but not plastic dowels) up to 200 long are then insertedmm. Usually 6-10 bolts are used for fasteners– taking into account the mass of the lantern, a certain excess strength must be incorporated into the structure.
Obviously, to organize the backlight, it is necessary to leave a margin of space. Practice shows that the optimal distance from the frame to the ceiling plate– 15-20see. The frame should be set and fixed strictly horizontally, aligning with the building level. This, firstly, is important for the subsequent installation of a false ceiling, and secondly, it will reduce the risk of glass falling out. After the frame is suspended from the ceiling, all that remains is to insert the glass. Remember that individual stained glass segments must be made removable, this is necessary for the maintenance of fixtures. In addition, if powerful electric or halogen lamps are installed inside, ventilation holes will also be required, otherwise there will be a danger of overheating and a short circuit.
The cost of installation work is 10-30% of the cost of a stained-glass window. It all depends on the area of the panel and the complexity of its installation. ATin especially difficult cases (if the stained-glass window is located above the indoor pool or gazebo), this figure can increase up to 100%. Naturally, the simpler the design you conceive, the cheaper it will cost you.
The editors would like to thank the LIGHTING SALON AT MALA ORDYNKA 39, the company “LUMINATOR”, “PILE”, “DOMOSVET”, “LABORATORY RS”, ISS, “LEGE-ARTIS”, “ART-YUM”, “ART-Stained Glass”, “ALTER EGO CREATIVE WORKSHOP” for help in preparing the material.