designer M. Mamulat
Photo by P. Lebedev
In order to make it convenient to use energy-saving lamps in everyday life, they are often supplied with a standard threaded base.
The device of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) equipped with a built-in ballast (PRA):
a– lamps of conventional (traditional) design;
b– models equipped with an RF generator
Lamp Leonardo (MASSIVE) to illuminate the workplace
For relaxation, lamps with a spectrum of 2700 K are suitable.
When purchasing energy-saving lamps, it is necessary to take into account the spectrum of their light. For uniform illumination, it must be the same for all bulbs. ATOtherwise, it may turn out that some lamps give a reddish light, while others– bluish
Some luminaires are specially designed for compact fluorescent lamps
Bulbs of fluorescent lamps can be equipped with a reflecting mirror
FIRME DI VETRO
Due to the long service life, CFLs are installed in places where access is difficult.
Photo by V. Nefedov
Lamp over the bar as a design element
Not all consumers like luminescent “tubes”. Therefore, there are more and more models with familiar pear-shaped flasks.
Another promising direction for the use of fluorescent lamps– Outdoor Lighting
For a suburban area, lamps of a special design are suitable, capable of operating in a wide temperature range. These are, for example, amalgam lamps that are started
Luminaire Index (WEVER DUCR) is specially designed for the installation of compact fluorescent lamps with a power of
up to 26Tue The use of such lamps is economically justified, because they consume
5 times less electricity than conventional incandescent lamps
For a long time it was believed that fluorescent lamps were only suitable for offices. Their main advantages– brightness and economy– faded compared to numerous design flaws. Modern generations of such lamps have much higher performance compared to their predecessors.
Compact fluorescent lamps can be installed in luminaires of various designs and designs– from classical
to the most ultra-modern Every year, electricity becomes more expensive, and its consumption is growing at the same time. BUTThis means that monthly payments for electricity are increasing quite quickly. Today, for example, the cost of 1 kWh is 1.84rub. for Muscovites living in houses with gas stoves. If you spend several hundred kilowatt-hours inmonth, as a result, a round sum can run up. How to reduce electricity consumption without sacrificing comfort? One of the simple ways– use of energy-saving fluorescent lamps. Their distinguishing feature is high luminous efficiency, that is, the magnitude of the luminous flux (measured in lumens– lm), obtained per 1W of power consumed by the lamp. If for incandescent lamps this figure is up to 10-15lm per 1W, for halogen– up to 30, then for energy-saving– approximately 50-60lm per 1Tue Thus, the required illumination can be obtained by replacing, for example, 100-watt incandescent lamps with only 20-watt fluorescent lamps. A simple calculation shows that such a 20-watt lamp over a standard service life (6-8 thousand hours) will save about 450-600kWh electricity. ATmoney equivalent (at the current capital tariffs) is about 900-1000rub. Even taking into account the high cost of fluorescent lamps (models with a power of 20-26W is on sale at a price of 150-200rub.) the benefits from their use are very tangible.
Another advantage of such devices– small (compared to incandescent lamps and especially halogen) level of heat generation. Fluorescent lamps heat up little during operation. This allows them to be used in “problem” lamps (for example, equipped with shades made of low-melting materials).
In the light of high technology
The mechanism of operation of a fluorescent lamp is as follows. The glass flask is filled with a mixture of inert gases and mercury vapor, and its inner surface is coated with a special phosphor. Under the action of a high voltage in the bulb, high-speed electrons escape from the surface of the cathode. Colliding with mercury atoms, they give part of their energy to the electrons that make up the atom, and transfer them to an excited state. It is unstable: a short period of time– and the excited electron returns to its full circle, to a stable orbit, and the excess energy is released in the form of ultraviolet radiation. The phosphor coating converts ultraviolet light into visible light.
Compact fluorescent lamps: yesterday and today
OSRAM The design scheme of fluorescent lamps has been developed for a long time– more than 100years ago, and the first industrial designs the company GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA) released in 1938G.However, these devices appeared in everyday life relatively recently. Reasons for this– different circumstances: high cost, solid dimensions, the need to use a special ballast (ballast) and the impossibility of installation in conventional luminaires designed for incandescent lamps. Surely in our country, many remember lamps with “institutional” fluorescent lamps. They could hardly be called convenient to use. Such lamps flickered during operation, did not function well with temperature changes, and ballasts produced an unpleasant rattling noise. It is not surprising that there were few hunters to have such devices at home.
The high luminous efficiency of fluorescent lamps provides normal illumination of the room even with one lamp Gradually, the situation began to change for the better. There were lamps with built-in control gear that could be used, like incandescent lamps, without any additional conditions. AT1980PHILIPS (Netherlands) produced the first compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) equipped with a standard E27 threaded base. BUTin 1985OSRAM (Germany) was the first to develop an energy-saving lamp for household use (Dulux El model). Since the second half of the 90s. XXin. Mass production of CFLs with threaded bases began in China, and their prices dropped sharply. FROM2001G.The US experienced a real boom in CFL sales; models of such lamps of high power (50-70W). They were really small devices.– no more than a conventional incandescent lamp. The number of design models of lamps is rapidly increasing: with a tube-flask of a spiral shape (twisted), candle-shaped, arc-shaped andt.d.
“Size matters”: incandescent lamp (a) and fluorescent lamp (b), both– the same power. The second one is not suitable for every lamp in its dimensions. Today, a large number of various CFL models from different manufacturers are on sale. Among the latter, we can mention the companies “KOSMOS”, “START” (both– Russia), MEGAMAN (China), GENERAL ELECTRIC, PHILIPS, OSRAM. Most of the CFLs are manufactured in China (in particular, in Hong Kong and Taiwan), but there are also devices made in Hungary on the Russian market (part of the product line GENERAL ELECTRIC), the Netherlands and Poland (PHILIPS), and Germany (OSRAM).
CFL models differ in brightness, power consumption and a number of other characteristics. Among those indicators that you should pay attention to when choosing a lamp, the following are the most important.
Plinth construction. CFLs, like incandescent lamps, come with several types of bases. They can be fitted with a standard E27 base, an E14 minion, an E40 base used in large “industrial” luminaires, or a variety of pin base designs. ATMost household fixtures use an E27 base.
Colorful temperature. The light emitted by a lamp can have a different spectrum. It is defined as the radiation spectrum of a completely black body heated to a certain temperature, and is indicated in kelvins (K). The most common lamps with a spectrum of 2700K (like a warm yellowish color), 4200K (daylight), 6500K (cold white “fading into blue”). Lamps with different color temperatures differ in their purpose. If the “yellowish” spectrum is 2700K is perceived as “cozy” and is more suitable for a bedroom or living room, then 6500 lampsK give cold contrast lighting, which is not so comfortable. But they are suitable for work in institutions.
Flask shape. The “early” models of compact fluorescent lamps that appeared in Russia a few years ago did not differ much from each other outwardly. Now the variety of flasks is impressive. There are multi-channel lamps (two-, three- and four-arc), twisted or spiral, pear-shaped,
WITO ball-shaped, candle-shaped, cylindrical, figured, with a mirror reflector andothers
Energy efficiency. All fluorescent lamps are, of course, much more economical than incandescent lamps.
Often there are CFLs with a bulb made in the form of three arcs. However, they can differ significantly from each other in terms of the level of electricity consumption. As with other devices, CFLs are subject to the European Energy Efficiency Classification, according to which all lamps are divided into seven classes– from A to G (the class must be indicated on the package). Most Energy Efficient– A. If a lamp is assigned this class, it means that it saves up to 80% of electricity and, as a result, reduces the electricity bill by about 6 times.
From simple to complex
What else is worth asking when choosing a lamp? It is necessary, for example, to clarify the service life. AtCFL it is 6-8 thousand hours (standard). Sometimes the manufacturer, in order to reduce costs, modifies the design at the expense of elements that ensure the reliability of the lamp. This may be the absence of parts that protect the device from voltage surges, or a quickly “aging” low-quality phosphor. Thus, the service life of the device is greatly reduced. Today, self-respecting manufacturers prefer not to save on microcircuits responsible for the smooth start of the lamp, which guarantees a long service life,– for some products, it reaches 12 thousand hours (Maximum, COSMOS series) and even 15 thousand hours (Dulux El Concentra R80 23W, OSRAM; Genura, GENERAL ELECTRIC; Stick 12Y, PHILIPS; various models with Ingenium, MEGAMAN technology).
Ceiling lamp Cinnamon (MASSIVE) is specially designed for a fluorescent lamp made in the form of a ring (hoop). The service life is associated not only with the high quality of the lamps, but also with the use of new technologies. For example, the Genura model is an induction lamp with an electrodeless design. ATelectron-ion plasma is produced using high-frequency (2.65MHz) of an induction coil powered by a built-in RF voltage generator. This plasma causes the ultraviolet glow of mercury vapor, and the phosphor converts the ultraviolet into visible light. This technology ensures long lamp life, low minimum start-up temperature (from -10C) and up to 100 thousand inclusions.
Another perfect solution is the amalgam technology used in the Stick 12Y. Such lamps flare up more slowly (in this model 100% luminous flux is reached after approx. 3min), but are less affected by both high and low temperatures. This is especially important when using the lamp in closed fixtures, as well as when installing it in unheated rooms, since it starts at a temperature of -25FROM.
A very important parameter– dimensions of the lamp. When choosing a model, for example, for a chandelier, it must be borne in mind that the presence of a standard E27 base does not guarantee that it is suitable for the lamp. Thus, the length of a lamp with a power of 85W (model 4U 85 E2742, “COSMOS”) is 335mm and width– 78mm; lamps of similar power from other manufacturers have similar dimensions.
Designers believe that playing with light is one of the most economical and effective methods of shaping the interior. FROMusing energy-saving lamps (PHILIPS) for cold and warm light, it is easy to create your own unique lighting style. housing (since the lamp efficiency decreases with increasing temperature of the gas-discharge mixture). In addition, these devices use a plastic base with a conductive coating. Such a base does not stick to the cartridge even during prolonged use, so in the future it is easy to unscrew the light bulb.
PHILIPS also presented technological innovations. Among them– energy-saving lamp with double light effect “2 in 1”. It has a built-in LED and can operate in two modes: in night light mode (dimmed light with a power of 1W) and in the usual (emits light like a conventional CFL with a power of 9W). The 2 in 1 model is designed for use in areas where low lighting is needed for long periods of time, such as in the bedroom, in the living room while watching TV, or in the hallway for orientation.
Model “Automatic 8 Years” (PHILIPS) is designed for outdoor installation and operates in automatic mode Another novelty from PHILIPS– model “Automatic 8 Years”. This is an energy-saving lamp with two sensors that automatically lights up at dusk and turns off when there is enough light outside. It is intended for outdoor use: lighting gardens, verandas, porches. It can also be used as an additional security system that does not need to be turned on manually. The advantage of the “Automatic 8 Years” lamp is that its sensors distinguish natural daylight from that emitted by the lamp, so the device can be installed in luminaires with opal or white coating, as well as in luminaires that reflect light.
ATnumber of new products presented by OSRAM,– Dulux El Facility model. ATit implements a technology that makes it possible to turn the lamps on and off frequently throughout the entire service life, as well as QuickStart technology to quickly establish the luminous flux after switching on. These features make it possible to use Dulux El Facility lamps where the light is turned on frequently and for a short time, for example, in bathrooms or hallways (traditional design CFLs are not designed for such working conditions).
Despite the possible external resemblance to incandescent lamps, CFLs have a number of features that must be considered during their operation. So, for example, the ambient temperature affects the luminous efficiency of lamps. Fluorescent lamps do not tolerate heat above 60C, and in the cold they completely stop working. Therefore, if it is necessary to illuminate unheated premises or summer cottages, special CFL models for outdoor installation should be used. Similar series of lamps are in the range of companies GENERAL ELECTRIC, OSRAM and other manufacturers. However, it should be noted that most household models of fluorescent lamps are not intended for use in frost when the temperature is below -10FROM.
Designer T. Zhuk
Photo by S. and E. Morgunov
A problem for fluorescent lamps is their use at too low or, conversely, high temperatures. ATIn such a situation, the lamps continue to work, but their luminous flux decreases. The standard operating temperature range is usually -5…+50C Fluorescent lamps cannot be used in combination with dimmers (dimmers that allow you to streamline the supply of electricity to the lamp). More specifically, fluorescent lamps require special dimmer designs. Not all manufacturers of electrical installation products produce them.– only companies GIRA (Germany) and LEGRAND (France). They are usually designed for fluorescent lamps with built-in electronic control gear and are relatively expensive. Therefore, if you use a dimmer to change the light intensity of a chandelier, please note that when replacing conventional incandescent bulbs with fluorescent ones, you will also have to change the dimmer.
ATIn this regard, the novelty of OSRAM is especially interesting.– Dulux El Dim. This is a CFL, the electronic circuit of which is such that it is suitable for operating a lamp with conventional dimmers. The new device makes it possible to adjust the intensity of the luminous flux in the range of 15-100% in the same way as conventional incandescent lamps.
An interesting approach to solving the problem of adjusting the brightness of CFLs is offered by MEGAMAN. ATThe new Dors Dimming series uses a technology that allows you to reduce or increase the brightness using a conventional two-position switch. To activate the brightness adjustment program, you must turn the light on and off within 1 s. By manipulating the switch, you can change the intensity of illumination (5, 33, 66, 100%).
Advantages of a “hot start”
There are energy-saving lamps with preheating (they light up approximately 1 second after being turned on) and with a cold start (they turn on almost instantly). The former are more expensive, but have an almost unlimited number of restarts, while the latter “do not like” to be turned on and off many times. For example, a company GENERAL ELECTRIC sets the lifetime of its CFLs at six times a day. Short start of the device for a period of less than 20min causes severe wear and significantly reduces the duration of its normal operation. ATin rooms where the light has to be turned on and off too often, it is recommended to install lamps with preheating. Outwardly, they are no different from models with a cold start, so the type of their design should be checked with the seller.
With prolonged use, all fluorescent lamps lose their luminous efficiency. The norm is a decrease in this indicator by 20% by the end of the estimated service life, but with a low-quality phosphor, the level of light output can be as high as 50%. Alas, a non-professional is unlikely to be able to distinguish a high-quality phosphor from a low-quality one by eye. Therefore, if you want the lamp brightness not to decrease too much as the resource develops, we can only advise you to purchase products from well-known and reputable manufacturers.
Finally, I would like to say a few words about safety and ecology. ATFluorescent lamps use mercury vapor. Their number is strictly regulated by the relevant standards in force for manufacturers in Europe, Asia and the United States. Therefore, even if you accidentally break such a lamp at home, this cannot be considered a reason for panic.– ventilate the room well enough. ATfor maximum safety, they produce lamps with a bulb covered with a special silicone shell,– for example the Candle series (MEGAMAN). If such a light bulb falls and breaks, fragments and mercury vapor will not get into the air.
Since fluorescent lamps contain mercury, they should not be disposed of with normal household waste. ToUnfortunately, our compatriots do not yet show the proper level of consciousness. For example, in Europe and the United States there are waste bins specifically designed not only for fluorescent lamps, but also for batteries, CRT televisions and other similar devices. ATMoscow has enough firms involved in the disposal of hazardous waste, but they cooperate mainly with organizations, although anyone can conclude a service contract with them. Of course, the owner of a single light bulb will not agree to this, but for a large group of homeowners, such a service is unlikely to be financially burdensome. As they say, a trifle, but nice. Andmain– smart from an environmental point of view.