Architects Stanislav Kulish, Vadim Lipatov, Evgeny Eremenko
Photo by Zinur Razutdinov
Architects Vadim Grekov, Irina Tatarkina
Photo by Evgeny Luchin
Experts advise commensurate the level of illumination of the bathroom with adjacent rooms, it should not be too dark or too light.
Luminous borders from STEULER SANIPA
The light near the mirror should be soft, diffused, as close to natural as possible.
Architect Boris Uborevich-Borovsky, with the participation of Yuri Burkhanov
Photo by Mikhail Stepanov
ATa spacious bathroom on the ceiling and walls install several light sources, achieving uniform illumination
The layout of the recessed ceiling lights in the bathroom
Some manufacturers offer illuminated shelves, where the light source is hidden behind glass.
For installation in a false ceiling, it is better to choose special luminaires with reflectors
Project author Anda Argale
Photo by Karen Manko
A wide mirror can be illuminated from above by placing the lamps at a height of 2m from floor level. Along with conventional halogen sources, fluorescent ones are also used, the emission spectrum of which is close to natural
Architect Sergey Erofeev
Photo by Peter Lebedev
The presence of a window does not change the light scenario much, since it is usually covered with frosted glass or blinds. However, the window gives a feeling of spaciousness, it is easier to breathe in such a room.
Manufacturers of bathroom furniture, as a rule, offer their own options for lighting mirrors (BURG)
Architect Maria Stepanova
Photo by Mikhail Stepanov
Variable Angle Capsule Lamps– the perfect solution for suspended ceilings
WET launches bathtubs with self-contained lighting
FROMwith the help of luminous borders, zoning problems can be solved. The LEDs are embedded directly in the material, they are connected to the mains voltage adapter during installation
Sok chromotherapy bath KOHLER. Colors (white, blue, green, orange) change each other minute by minute. You can set any program or create your own
Architect Maxim Pavlichuk
Photo by Georgy Shablovsky
Tubular lamps with a long spiral are optimal for illuminating a bathroom mirror. Their warm-toned light is closer to white than incandescent bulbs, making it perfect for capturing ambient colors.
Architects Levon Airapetov, Tatyana Basheva
Photo by Zinur Razutdinov
ATlamps with an interference reflector, two-thirds of the thermal radiation is diverted back, which is very important for suspended structures
Architects Sergey Chertkov, Petr Kalinichenko, Galina Yudina
Photo by Vitaly Nefedov
Bathroom fixtures are usually bought at the same time as other accessories, in which case you can purchase a collection made in a single key
The rails of the conductive system can be located along the wall
Variable angle recessed halogen luminaires
Designer Julia Polivanova
Photo by Vitaly Nefedov
Lighting systems with a current-carrying guide rail are also suitable for the bathroom, which makes it possible to install the lamp anywhere
Some manufacturers offer false ceiling tiles with integrated halogen lights (SVEDBERGS)
Luminaires are attached to the conductor using adapters unique for each system.
The two-rail system consists of a pair of thin metal tubes with a diameter of 4-10mm, located at a distance of 3 to 20see apart
What will be the light in the bathroom, decide, of course, its owner. But in order to make a conscious choice, it does not hurt to get acquainted with the safety requirements, lighting standards, the basics of lighting design and, finally, with lighting products that are on the market today.
Light without danger
The current Rules for the installation of electrical installations, adopted in 1999, classify bathrooms as areas of increased danger. Splashes, puddles, and condensation are possible here. Therefore, we will proceed from the safety requirements provided for such premises. ATin particular, in the immediate vicinity of water (closer than 0.6m) do not place wiring elements, install sockets, switches, high-voltage lamps. Ceiling and wall light sources are prescribed to be provided with shades and raised above the water level by at least 2m, and all metal fittings designed for mains voltage must be zeroed for protection purposes. Andof course, the use of portable lamps and open lighting fixtures is not allowed. ATin case of using a wall lamp near the bath, it must be equipped with a switch with a cord. A good, but rather expensive way to avoid direct contact of wet hands with the switch– remote control, radio wave or IR rays.
When choosing a luminaire, first of all, you should pay attention to the marking consisting of the letters IP (Index of Protection) and two numbers: the first indicates the degree of protection against dust, the second– from moisture (if only one type of protection is significant for a given product, X is put in place of the missing one). IEC standard529 and European norms EN60598 has eight degrees of protection against the ingress of moisture: from 0 (no protection) to 8 (protection against the ingress of water during prolonged immersion).
How much light does a person need?
It’s bad if your bathroom looks dark or the light in it is so bright that you involuntarily squint your eyes when you enter. That is why experts advise commensurate the level of illumination of the bathroom with adjacent rooms. The average power indicators that should be installed on 1 will help you make the right calculations.m2 bathroom area. For illumination in 100lx, suitable for simple work, it is necessary that for standard incandescent lamps this indicator be 20-30W/m2for halogen– 10-15W/m2for fluorescent lamps– 4-6W/m2. The first digit refers to rooms where light surfaces predominate, the second– to darker ones. As you can see, the difference between them is quite large. Andthis is understandable, because the light reflection coefficient of white walls is 0.7-0.85, and green or, for example, blue– already 0.03-0.04.
Based on these figures, it is easy to determine the optimal level of illumination, which is approximately 200 lux. Of course, it can also be established empirically, according to the principle “if it’s comfortable, then it’s right.” However, this selection will require experimentation.It’s hard to hit the mark the first time. Suitable for a small bathroom– install one, but powerful enough luminaire, equipped with a special illuminance control device. By the way, many high-quality devices on the Russian market have a similar function.
FROMwindow or without?
By the grace of designers, most of us have dark bathrooms, although in old or, conversely, new houses, windows are still found in them. Natural light gives a feeling of spaciousness, it is easier to breathe in such a room. As for lighting, even in the daytime, the window is unlikely to completely cope with this problem, since it is usually covered with blinds, frosted glass or stained glass. In other words, the presence or absence of a window makes little difference to the light scenario. Rather, it is a matter of psychological comfort. After all, many people feel uncomfortable in a small enclosed space. You can help them by folding one of the walls of the bathroom from glass blocks, through which natural light will penetrate from other rooms. Or cut a window in the wall that borders the room where sunlight enters. Or imitate a window by arranging a backlight in a wall niche covered with frosted glass.
Let there be light!
As we have already said, there should be a lot of light in the bathroom, but … not too much. The standard in this respect is the general light. For a small room, the problem is solved simply– one lighting device is enough here. When choosing a place to install a lamp, keep in mind that it is better to place it on a conditional axis between the mirror and the person looking into it, without deviating either to the sides or back. Otherwise, the lighting will be uneven, unnecessary shadows will form. But the traditional installation option remains optimal.– high above the mirror, at a distance of several tens of centimeters from the ceiling.
ATa spacious bathroom on the ceiling or walls install several light sources, achieving uniform illumination. Usually miniature halogen lamps are used for this. For ceiling mounting, adjustable angle luminaires are best, as light directed perpendicularly downwards can cause a glare effect. Optimum turning angle– 40. We must remember that the main thing in the fight against glare– avoid high light at eye level.
Lamps with diffused glass recessed into the walls or ceiling will help muffle the reflection of light from glossy tiles, and gold-plated lamps will make the cold shine of white ceramics and metal warmer. ATIn any case, lighting should not conflict with the environment. For a bathroom saturated with brilliant decor, matte lamps that do not give glare are ideal. However, it should be noted that frosted glass reduces illumination by about 30%.
Since general lighting is the main one, it is better if it is warm, soft. This means that conventional incandescent lamps and halogen lamps with a frosted diffuser are preferable here. The best option– a combination of reflected light with direct directional.
Degrees of protection for luminaires
IPX0– no protection (marking may not be affixed);
IPX1– protection against drops of water falling vertically;
IPX2– protection against drops of water falling at an angle of up to 15;
IPX3– protection against rain falling at an angle up to 60 from vertical;
IPX4– protection against drops and splashes falling at any angle;
IPX5– protection against water jets of arbitrary direction;
IPX6– protection against the impact of water flows or a strong jet;
IPX7– protection against water when immersed at a certain depth and time;
IPX8– protection against water at unlimited time of immersion on a certain depth.
The degree of protection specified in the technical specifications of the device or device,– evidence that the product meets the standards and the manufacturer guarantees the quality of its products.
How many lamps with one degree or another of protection you will need depends on the lighting scenario. But it is better to proceed from the Rules for the installation of luminaires in bathrooms of residential premises (VDE0100, h.701), according to which the bathroom space is divided into four zones. Zone 0 corresponds to lighting fixtures IPX7 (up to 12B), zone 1– IPX4 (in showers with high water pressure)– IPX5), zone 2– IPX4, zone 3-IPX1.
My light, mirror…
According to the designers, the main object in the bathroom is not a bath at all, but a mirror, traditionally located above the sink. It is also the main “working area”, requiring a special light regime even in a small room. For this purpose, any type of light source is suitable. It is only important to choose and position them correctly.
The light near the mirror should be bright, but at the same time soft, diffused and as close to natural as possible. It is better not to arrange games with color here, so as not to be afraid of your own reflection. Bright light not only blinds the eyes, but also distorts the image: directed from top to bottom, it highlights all the imperfections of the face, and from bottom to top– creates deep shadows. To prevent the image from turning livid, a source of warm light is needed. ATin this case, any lamps with a warm emission spectrum will be appropriate, but the best option– lamps with a golden mirror coating of the dome of the bulb.
How to arrange the lamps near the mirror? Traditional Solution– install them symmetrically on the sides, which will ensure an even distribution of light, without shadows and glare. This, perhaps, will be optimal for a mirror stretched upwards. Here, long narrow halogen lamps, ordinary sconces or rows of small built-in lamps are preferred, which are fixed directly to the surface of the mirror using special glue. A wide mirror can be illuminated from above by placing the light source at a height of approximately 2m from the floor level (if the mirror is at a distance of more than 2.5m from the bath). It’s great if the lamp is on brackets, this will allow you to direct the light a little upward. A medium-sized mirror, close in shape to a square or a circle, is often framed around the perimeter with built-in lights.
Manufacturers of equipment, furniture and accessories for bathrooms often offer the consumer their own options for lighting mirrors. ATthere are definite advantages to this. Firstly, such solutions are well thought out in terms of lighting design, and secondly, the lamps are made in the same style as the rest of the furnishings. One example– hanging mirror cabinets with lighting, which combine the function of a mirror and a container for toiletries. The price of such a locker, made in Italy or Germany, averages from 600 to 1500. More democratic option– mirror shelves with halogen lighting (50-70)– offer Russian companies.
It’s… whiter than moonlight!
The foundryman Ivan Kozyrev called the bath the Promised Land, and Mayakovsky once told the world about his moving into a new apartment. Yes, and many of us, who have long been accustomed to this blessing of civilization, treat it with love, as a place where you can pamper your soul and body. Agree, such a zone deserves a light accent, but not bright, but soft, relaxing.
Some manufacturers offer models of bathtubs with autonomous lighting, hiding the light sources behind a matte plastic or perforated metal screen. But, perhaps, it is much more pleasant if soft light streams from above, for example, from a sconce fixed high enough on the wall. A floor lamp on a long thin leg with an adjustable position of the lamp will look very stylish. But before you implement this unexpected solution for the bathroom, make sure that the floor lamp is stable enough. You can emphasize the intimacy of the washing procedure by plunging the rest of the room into twilight.
By the way, color is quite appropriate in this zone. Ceiling lamps made of colored glass or spotlights with colored glass embedded in the wall of the bath will “color” the water and create a bizarre play of glare on its surface. Unusually looks colored illumination, which creates a device installed under water. But manufacturers equip only the most expensive ones with this function (4-4.5 thousand and above) or exclusive models of hot tubs. Installation of electrical equipment only for the sake of an underwater lamp is not beneficial to either the manufacturer or the buyer.
For the same reason, most showers are deprived of autonomous lighting. FROMdifficult, but you can find models of showers with lighting based on optical fiber or LEDs. But this is more decoration than lighting. So the problem with the light in this area will have to be solved independently. For the shower room, a tablet lamp mounted in the ceiling, and long halogen or fluorescent lamps mounted on the wall on the sides of the cabin, and even lighting on the floor, are suitable. For the floor, devices that illuminate garden paths are quite applicable. So, the GARDENA kit, which includes five halogen sources for 5B, cables, connectors and transformer, cost only $65. Kthe floor fixtures are attached with ordinary screws, for which holes are provided in the cases.
A particularly intimate area with a toilet and bidet, perhaps, does not require special lighting, unless you are a fan of looking through the fresh press in the “reverie corner”. ATin a dark space, the backlight mounted in the plumbing equipment will help you navigate. As a rule, it is based on LED technology and is mostly made to order. At the request of the client, such a backlight will automatically turn on, for example, when water flows from a tap. FROMusing the same LEDs or light guides, you can lay a luminous path to the toilet, sink, outline the border of the bath area, especially if it is built into the podium. To do this, it is enough to fix translucent tiles in the floor covering, placing LEDs under them. The luminous wavy borders from the Flow collection from the company work on the same principle. STEULER, which are allowed on the surface of the walls, combining with a special transformer tile. Illumination is provided by LEDs built directly into the material and connected to a mains voltage adapter. Of course, we are talking about the purest element of decor. But thanks to him, zoning problems can also be solved. ATin any case, we must not forget that this is, if not too complicated, but still an electrical device, and a specialist should handle its installation. Price level– a little bit more 90 for a piece of curb about 40 longcm.
love lamps– Light source!
Given the restrictions dictated by safety standards, almost any light source is suitable for the bathroom: incandescent, fluorescent, halogen.
Incandescent lampsare the most common and cheapest. Invented about 120years ago, they still eat a lot of energy, 95% of which is spent on heat generation. Small and their resource– total about 1000 hours of continuous operation. True, this is not important for bathrooms, since the light bulb here burns at most for a couple of hours a day. In this mode, it will last a year and a half, giving you a warm, comfortable light.
Along with the standard ones, the market offers miniature krypton lamps with an almost 10% increase in brightness. Or lamps with a siliconized inner surface of the bulb, giving a soft, non-dazzling light. ATRecently, samples with a silver or gold mirror coating on the dome, which increases light output, have been popular. Forms became more diverse– spherical, in the form of a fungus, tubular. The latter are perfect for illuminating a mirror, especially since we look especially attractive in the warm light they emit.
Fluorescent lamps have high light output with low energy consumption (40-50 lm/W). To provide illumination comparable to an incandescent lamp, four to five times less energy is required. They are durable (10-15 thousand hours of continuous operation) and provide a stable luminous flux– by the end of the service, it decreases by only 5%. Fluorescent lamps attract with a variety of shapes: in addition to straight ones, there are round ones, U-shaped ones, in the form of a spiral… But small, reminiscent of ordinary light bulbs are especially popular.
It used to be that the cold light emitted by fluorescent lamps absorbs and distorts the surrounding colors. However, today the spectrum of their radiation is as close as possible to natural. There are also lamps with warm light on the market. Andboth reproduce colors beautifully. New generation products are no longer considered a source of increased danger– the level of mercury content in them is significantly reduced. The reproach that they flicker and buzz is also untenable. Thanks to the use of a system with electronic starters (electronic ballasts), modern lamps turn on instantly and work without flicker and noise. By the way, lamps appeared on sale, the radiation intensity of which can be adjusted: turning them off and then turning them on again within three seconds will reduce the brightness of the glow by half and reduce current consumption.
Halogen lamps, which appeared on our market relatively recently, it seems that they have already won the competition with other light sources. The reason for this– their small size, durability (2-6 thousand hours) and high light output at low power consumption (14-30 lm/W). At power 20W they provide the same illumination as a 60 incandescent bulbTue (10lm). The light output is even higher for “halogen lamps” with mirror reflectors. Thanks to the ribs on the mirror surface, the angle of dispersion of the light beam varies from 8 up to 60which is very valuable for accent lighting.
Lamps having a cylindrical or candle-shaped flask are used in fixtures that require a miniature source. Tubular, with a long spiral, suitable for lighting a mirror in the bathroom. Their warm-toned light is closer to white than that of incandescent lamps, making it perfect for capturing ambient colors. Capsule models, with a compact filament body and a variable angle of rotation,– the perfect solution for suspended ceilings. BUTsome samples can even be built into floors. ATlamps with an interference reflector, two-thirds of the thermal radiation is diverted back, which is very important for suspended structures. FROMtechnologies that convert it into visible light are also successfully struggling with a high level of generated heat, and with excess UV radiation– quartz glass, cutting off this part of the spectrum. For bathrooms there are special protected halogen lamps with a power of 20Tue
Today the whole world translates low-power devices (up to 100W) to a safe voltage, in connection with which low-voltage (12-24C) halogen lamps. BUTfor bathrooms they are almost ideal.
Among the relatively new light sources, LED lighting is becoming increasingly popular. They require a low supply voltage, do not heat up, are electrically and explosion-proof. The ability to work continuously for 80-100 thousand hours and resistance to mechanical stress allows them to be immured into the floor or wall without fear. There are already luminaires with combined and solar spectrum LEDs on the market (HP Sunpower series, etc.). Due to their low power, they are still used for zoning space and creating color accents. However, the advent of super-powerful LEDs undoubtedly expands the scope of their application.
Effective and absolutely safe solution– systems using light guides. They require only one light source, which can be installed even outside the bathroom, and with their help the light is brought to any point in the space.
The products of the best Western manufacturers are represented on the Russian market: OSRAM, PAULMANN, GENERAL ELECTRIC LIGHTING, PHILIPS, SILVANIA andetc. Their range, as a rule, covers the entire range of products– from traditional incandescent lamps to professional models for special purposes. As for the light sources used in everyday life, they are very close in terms of nomenclature, quality, and price level. Experts also note that goods from Southeast Asia legally present on the market are quite competitive in quality, not to mention the price, but loses in terms of model range. Approximately the same situation with Russian products. For ordinary incandescent lamps, there is practically no difference between our and imported products. BUThere with portable fluorescent and “reflex cameras” there are still problems.
The only thing to be afraid of– these are fakes that literally flooded the domestic market. Of course, they are unlikely to be found in branded salons. BUThere in the markets and in small shops– quite possible. When studying the label on the package, please note that according to the rules of trade, it must contain the address of the manufacturer in Russian. Feel free to ask the seller for a certificate, although its authenticity is also not guaranteed.
The spread of prices on the market is very large, mainly the goods of Russian and Asian manufacturers, on the one hand, and Russian and Western– with another. The products of the latter, as a rule, are 5-10 times more expensive than their domestic counterparts. The price of lamps also depends on the power: products for 45W is two to three times cheaper than 100-watt. Our incandescent lamps can be purchased for 4-6rub., the cost of imported samples of the same class will be 1-1.5, and latest generation models– 4-6. The cheapest domestic halogen sources cost about 10rubles, foreign ones are four to five times more expensive. The price of conventional fluorescent lamps is slightly higher, but miniature ones are still expensive (7-10).
Their Excellencies Lamps
Fixtures are usually not chosen in advance. They are bought either at the same time as the rest of the bathroom accessories, and then the best option– purchase a collection made in a single key, or postpone the purchase until the moment when the style of the room is fully determined. ATIn this case, you will have to choose from a huge number of offers.– the range of lamps includes tens of thousands of models. Various design solutions– baroque, classic, modern, minimalism, hi-tech…
Before you go to the salon, you need to designate at least some landmarks. It should be borne in mind that, for example, according to their purpose, luminaires are included in one of six groups: for general, local, combined, decorative, orienting and exposition lighting. According to the installation method, they are divided into ceiling, suspended, built-in, wall, floor and desktop. Products are classified according to the light sources used.– lighting fixtures are produced based on certain parameters of the lamp, indicating them on the packaging and in the instructions.
Lamps are also distinguished by the material of manufacture: shatterproof glass (triplex or duplex), borosilicate, transparent, frosted, colored, Murano, with the effect of an ice pattern or water droplets; metal– styling in gold, aluminum, chrome, aged bronze andt.e. BIn bathrooms, functional lamps made of frosted glass combined with metal are most appropriate. They harmonize in the best way with sanitary equipment and accessories offered on the market.
According to the direction of the luminous flux, lamps are divided into direct light (directed downwards), diffused light (directed upwards equals directed downwards) and reflected light (directed upwards). For general bathroom lighting, models of the last two types are relevant. They provide an even distribution of light and form soft shadows.
For luminaires, such an indicator as light distribution, estimated by KSS (luminous intensity curve), is important. Cosine CV products are suitable for general lighting with soft light transitions, moderate contrast and even light distribution in rooms with normal ceiling heights. Models with a wide CSS will provide almost the same lighting quality in rooms with low ceilings. But when installing them, care must be taken that direct light does not fall into the eyes.
If you like recessed ceiling lights, it’s good to know that they can be made to fit incandescent and halogen lights. The first reduce the height of the ceilings by 8-12see second– only 3.5-6see. In damp rooms it is better to use shades with protective glass, and incandescent lamps– with a casing protecting against condensate. Devices with halogen sources will cost more, but will pay off handsomely during operation.
Having chosen the fixtures of the desired type and design, do not forget to check their performance and reliability of fastening parts. Make sure that the lamp is properly screwed into the socket, and that the internal surfaces of the product that require regular cleaning are easily accessible. This is especially important if the purchase is made in a small shop or market. After all, almost half of imported lamps are present in Russia, so to speak, unofficially. ATWe are mainly talking about products from China, Taiwan, Poland, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, which often do not satisfy the demanding customer either in terms of quality or design. As a rule, the goods belong to the lowest price category (30-100). ATbranded showrooms present fixtures from leading Italian, Spanish, Austrian, German, Belgian, American, Finnish manufacturers. The Russian companies MARBEL, CJSC “SATURN”, “ELECTROLUCH”, “POINT OF SUPPORT” andothers
ATItaly is undoubtedly the leader in design. Her strong point– classical models. Austrian, Belgian and German manufacturers are closer to minimalism. Their prices range from 100 to 40 thousand and more for exclusive samples. The cost of bathroom fixtures, as a rule, is not too high. Thus, the Finnish company LIVAL offers a series of specialized products with protection against dust and splashes (IP22-IP44) and built-in sockets at prices ranging from 615 to 1600rub., Austrian EGLO– from 281 to 5804rub., German OSRAM– from 395 to 3070rub.
So, modern technologies make it possible to realize any design fantasies in the bathroom. For example, make the floor lined with smalt glow or turn the starry sky above your head. But it is better if the lighting decor is not too plentiful and colorful, and at least a little bit functional. Let your own sense of proportion and the motto of modern design serve as your guide in the boundless sea of possibilities: “Functionality, restraint, simplicity”.
The editors thank the company STUDIO LINEsalon “LUMINAIRES ON SMALL ORDYNKA”, representative offices of OSRAM and GENERAL ELECTRIC for their help in preparing the material.