B architects.Danilin, W.Lezhakin, photo by D.Livshits.
Sophisticated spot lighting of niches turns laconic-shaped objects not just into color and style accents, but also into exquisite exhibits.
Electric incandescent lamp T.BUT.Edison and the electric incandescent lamp V.Nernst
Electric incandescent lamp a.N.Lodygin
Electric incandescent lamp a.N.Lodygin, and V.F.Dietrichson
Architect A.Deeva, photo by G.Shablovsky.
The additional effect of the illuminated cornice favorably shows the texture of the fabric of the curtains and adds daylight even on cloudy days.
Architects V.Chelnokov, G.Marov, W.Starikov, photo by M.Stepanova.
Hard patches of “high-tech” light are softened by the even background light created by spotlights on the ceiling
Architect A.Davletbaeva, photo by D.Shchiglovsky.
Cozy niche with illuminated mirror and two wall lamps– an example of not only the successful use of space, but also practical lighting
Architect V.Skardana, photo by V.Nefedov. The unusual shape of the shades and the soft light emitted by them is a good “cocktail” for the dining area
Architect A.Pevnev, photo by M.Stepanova. Not quite a classic lamp with white lampshades for a small pool table– a win-win
Architect A.Lyulkov, photo by M.Stepanova.
Lamps and an illuminated cornice in the corridor mark its spatial and visual boundaries
architect O.Sokolova, photo by V.Nefedov. A romantic canopy under the “starry sky” sets you in a romantic mood and evokes the sweetest dreams
architect T.Orlova, photo by V.Nefedov. Bringing out the depth and subtle nuances of a watercolor landscape is largely dependent on proper placement and lighting. The picture becomes not just a stain, but almost a “family member”
Architect A.Deeva, photo by G.Shablovsky. This bathroom seems solemn and boundless due to the mirror planes and the rhythmic rows of ceiling lights, although there is an “optical illusion”
Every light bulb is designed to give light. Bright or subdued, warm or cold, it helps us to give the interior expressiveness and individuality.
It is not known for certain who…
…invented electric lighting. Some seriously argue that the ancient Egyptians used incandescent lamps. They say there is solid evidence– drawing discovered in 1969g. on the bas-relief of the ancient Egyptian temple of the goddess Hathor, located near the city of Dendera. Andthe flask-shaped vessels depicted on it with snakes inside are actually nothing more than lamps with an incandescent element of such an intricate shape. They rest on special stands, which can easily be interpreted as porcelain insulators. BUTslender young lady– deity with two daggers– as if it symbolizes a banal knife switch. It may very well be.
Plutarch mentioned the lamp that burned at the entrance to the temple of Jupiter-Ammon for centuries. Oextremely bright source of light, which was located in the city of Herapolis (Syria), in the head of the statue of Hera, wrote the Greek satirist Lucian (120– OK. 190s n. e.).
It is well known that…
… the electric light bulb was not invented by Ilyich, but by the Russian scientist Alexander Nikolaevich Lodygin. He applied for his invention in 1872g., and in 1874received a patent. Lodygin’s lamps first worked 30-40 minutes subsequent modifications served up to 700-1000 hours. AT1873Lodygin’s lamps were already successfully illuminating the streets of St. Petersburg. A certain lieutenant of the Russian fleet A.M.Khotinsky, while on a business trip in America, demonstrated samples of these lamps to Edison. He made some design changes (cartridge, threaded base, etc.), tested and patented them in the same 1879d. The modified sample worked for two days (infurther it was possible to achieve a service life of several hundred hours). With all his morbid pride, Edison acted in good conscience with regard to his Russian colleague, indicating in the application that he only claims to “improve the conduct of electric light.”
Initially, ordinary sewing threads coated with charcoal were used as filaments. They could glow for forty hours. But the indefatigable Edison went through a wide variety of carbon-containing substances– food, resins, and it turned out, no less, about six thousand varieties of vegetable fiber. In the end, bamboo won (from which the case of the Japanese palm fan was made). But the unconditional palm belongs to tungsten, proposed by Lodygin.
Invented the electric arc charcoal lamp in 1875Mr. Petr Nikolaevich Yablochkov. It was figuratively called an electric candle. The device did not have a glass bulb, and the vertical rods ending in a luminous element really looked like a candle. The coals were arranged parallel to each other and separated by a layer of kaolin (an insulating substance).
Another quite popular at one time electric lamp was invented in 1897German researcher Walter Nernst. He used a compressed mixture of zirconium and calcium oxides as an incandescent element, which he called the “Nernst mass”. An electric current, passing through a rod of this substance, heated it to a white heat.
And finally, every student knows that …
…the light bulb consists of a hermetic glass bulb, spiral holders and the actual spiral. The spiral is made of tungsten, the melting point of which is 3410C. Another important property of tungsten– extremely high plasticity. From 1kg of this material is obtained about 4km of wire. The holder is made of molybdenum, which does not lag behind tungsten in refractoriness. Another nice thing about molybdenum is its extremely low coefficient of linear expansion. When heated, molybdenum expands in size in the same way as glass, due to which it does not crack and the hermeticity of the lamp is not violated.
Life or not life? That is the question…
The inhabitant reacted to electrification cautiously. Someone feared for their lives, someone was puzzled by the search for a brush to clean lamp glass.
The scheme of hanging lamps in the dwelling looked like this. The main chandelier in the living room hung in the center of the ceiling. The height of the suspension was adjusted depending on the “luminiferous” task. Dancing and socializing demanded the elevation of the chandelier; solemn meal– its lower location. For “interested conversations” sconces were used, illuminating all kinds of sofas and sofas, armchairs and chairs. ATin offices and boudoirs, table lamps set the hosts in a business or relaxed mood. There were also smoking rooms, billiard rooms, etc.e. Each of these rooms had a specific purpose, according to which the lamps were selected. A bowl-shaped lampshade hung low above the card table glowed dimly from the inside, illuminating only the tabletop, cards and players’ hands (even earlier a candle was used for this, which looked much more poetic).
The lamp in the billiard room was located (andlocated) above the playing field of the table at a height 80-90 cm. It consisted of green fabric or glass lampshades attached to a horizontal bar (from two to six, depending on the size of the table). Small sconces illuminated chairs for players, kievnitsa and other furnishings.
The library was supposed to set up those who visited it in a serious and thoughtful way, not excluding some imposingness. Tom was called upon to serve strict but comfortable sofas and armchairs. It was necessary to illuminate them diffusely, and work corners should be highlighted with directional light. The bookcases themselves were in semi-darkness, for the book does not like abundant light.
What has changed since then?
Looking broadly, a lot has changed. Andthe lamps are no longer the same, and there are much more varieties of lamps than in the old days. But many adhere to a conservative way of lighting a home. BUTit must be flexible, mobile and varied. It is ideal if it combines comfortable diffused and bright directional light, direct and reflected, monochrome and polychrome. Here are some tips that may come in handy for those who seek an unconventional approach to home lighting.
- For small rooms, wall decoration with materials with good reflective properties is appropriate. Add to that maximum lighting– andyou will expand the space (byat least visually).
- The arrangement of lamps, beloved by many, along the midline of the ceiling, on the contrary, will narrow the room.
- Something else for modest dimensions. Place lamps on the walls pointing upwards. The ceiling will literally “soar” in the rays.
- BUThere you can lower an excessively high room with the help of sources that will illuminate the walls, leaving the ceiling in the shade.
- For visual transformations, use a dimmer that allows you to change the brightness of the light source and, therefore, the light flux reflected from the floor, walls and ceiling.
- A narrow corridor will appreciate your efforts if you place lamps along one of its walls. The room will become wider and more welcoming.
- The same effect can be achieved by lighting the wall at the end of the corridor.
- A long corridor can be “cut off” with bright transverse light.
- To deepen the perspective of the corridor will help an even row of the same type of lamps on the ceiling.
Interior lighting can be functional or decorative. Functional, in turn, is divided into basic (general) and additional (local). Primary includes background and target. BUTLet’s now explain each of these terms. Functional lighting provides a luminous flux that matches the general purpose of the room. For this, chandeliers and built-in ceiling lights are used. All kinds of floor and exposition lamps, directional light lamps belong to the category of additional light. Background lighting allows you to evenly illuminate the space, secure moving around it, cleaning, etc.e. Ceiling (pendant or spot) lamps, wall and floor lamps are appropriate here, the light of which is reflected from the walls and ceiling. Target LightingIt is a bright, direct, glare-free light suitable for certain types of work (sewing, cooking, reading and writing, washing dishes, applying makeup, etc.).d.). This is served by all kinds of directional lamps, spotlights, darkened fluorescent tubes, closed lamps with cut holes to direct the light flux. Decorative lighting will give the interior completeness and individuality. Emphasize with direct rays the most advantageous details of the situation: niches, massive floor vases, sculpture, etc. Another version of the light game– floor lighting of the walls, making the interior mysterious. Extremely ornate (andinrecently popular) systems with the effect of “starry sky”. They consist of light guides, a projector and a light filter. All glass fibers have different thicknesses and different nozzles. The filter disk rotates slowly, and the “stars” projected onto the ceiling change their color. The atmosphere is magical, bewitching. Todecorative lighting, of course, includes all kinds of light pictures, real and false aquariums, illuminated plants, fountains and other luxury items. One cannot but pay attention to such an important type of lighting as security. It gives others the impression that the owners of the house, and prevents unauthorized intrusion into the home.
And now recommendations for those who prefer to receive everything (ormuch) inin one bottle. “The most curious, from their point of view, option for lighting a room is to recognize conductive systems. Their designs are diverse and allow you to mount both to the ceiling and to walls. Sources located on tires easily change the direction of the beam and their location. This allows you to concentrate the maximum amount of light at one point or create general lighting by placing light sources in different places in the room.Moreover, you can change the position of the lamps as many times as you like.again about the dimmer. barely noticeable gesture– andthe front room turns into a place for quiet conversations.
Well, it’s time to properly place the lamps in your rooms. Let’s discuss some of the most interesting ideas. BUTmainWe will try to avoid common mistakes.
Living room. Here it is necessary to provide a sufficient level of background light (even if local lighting is used). It should help avoid deep shadows in the far corners. Lighting task– present the living room in the most advantageous (ceremonial) form. Emphasize a decorative niche with a sculpture, painting, a showcase with overseas souvenirs, exquisite dishes. Curtains illuminated around the perimeter look spectacular. Use spotlights, spotlights, backlighting with small tubular lamps. If the living room is combined with an office, it must have a local light source. When choosing lampshades and diffusers for the living room, give preference to those in which lamps or tubes are not visible.
Canteen. Most often it is combined with a living room or kitchen. At the same time, important “shades of relationships” arise. The main thing– light up the table, not too bright, but not too dim. You will need either a height-adjustable lamp or precisely directed ceiling lights. Background lighting is better to weaken. The buffet and serving area can be additionally illuminated with sconces, uplighters or directional ceiling lights.
Kitchen. Here the lighting is predominantly functional. Background light is desirable, but the main thing– do not leave the main workplaces in the dark: stove, sink and cutting table. It is also convenient to place lamps inside shelves (cabinets). For this, flexible sources, regulated independently of each other, are suitable. If the stove is equipped with a hood, then the backlight is usually mounted in it. If there is no hood, you can use directional ceiling lights. Just take care of the exclusion of harsh shadows! To illuminate the planes under the hanging cabinets or shelves, it is best to install strip lights on the wall directly under these cabinets. It is reasonable to illuminate built-in wardrobes and open shelves with light bulbs recessed into the ceiling, and small lamps can be placed in floor cabinets that automatically turn on when the doors are opened. If the kitchen has a dining area, the table should be lit, as in the dining room (see photo).above). In this case, the background lighting must be dimmed.
Bathroom. She is not particularly attractive. Moderate brightness background lighting can be created both by the top and several side sources. The mirror above the sink also needs to be illuminated. For shaving or washing, a simple fluorescent tube is enough. But if the mirror is used to apply makeup, it is better to use incandescent lamps that do not distort colors. Andremember: all fixtures in the bathroom must be sealed, protected from splashes. Portable lamps and outdoor fixtures are excluded. It is good to provide vertical shadowless lighting in the bath and shower. Switches are recommended to be installed outside to exclude the possibility of touching them with wet hands. All internal switches must also be protected from moisture.
Bedroom. One of the most suitable rooms for playing with halftones. background light– muted, created with the help of sconces, bedside lamps, floor lamps or illuminated cornices. A bright, but not blinding light source is needed at the dressing table. But you also need a good source of overhead light– to inspect clothing and underwear. It is important to position the reading lamps in bed so that they illuminate only the pages of the book, and not the sweetly sleeping neighbor. It is better to have two walk-through switches, and one of them should be placed next to the bed. The design of lamps can be very diverse.– from lampshades with frills to the most unexpected modern forms. If only they all looked good not only from the bed, but also from any other point in the room.
Children’s. Light in the nursery– a special topic. The baby needs a bright but not harsh background light for play, a nightlight for comfortable sleep and a separate lamp for changing diapers, changing clothes and night toilet. An older child needs lighting in the workplace. The needs for light in adolescents are incredibly broad. In addition to background lighting and working desk lighting, the soul of a young person can crave a wide variety of lighting effects, ranging from a projector lamp to a strobe light.
Halls, stairs, landings. Here, a set of lighting fixtures is designed to evenly illuminate the space for our safety. It is better to direct the overhead light onto the steps so that the risers remain in the shade, and the treads, on the contrary, stand out brightly. The lamp should not interfere with movement. Lighting elements– indirect access for repair and replacement.
Marginal notes. The amount of light emitted is measured in lumens (lm). The physical meaning of such a unit of measurement as a lumen is rather complicated for a non-specialist. I will only mention that the formula for calculating the required luminous flux includes such quantities as the energy flux, the sensitivity curve of the eye and a certain constant, in the denominator of which– a number indicating the maximum possible light output of the source. As for the norm of illumination, it is measured in lux (lx) and is determined by dividing the luminous flux by the area of u200bu200bthe room (lm / m2). For example, for corridors, the illumination norm– 75lx, for halls– 100lx, for working area– from 300 to 500OK. ATIn the case of the working area, the subtlety lies in the fact that the illumination depends on the type of work. Let’s say a watchmaker, jeweler or embroiderer needs a value close to the maximum, and the initial 300 is enough for reading and writing.OK.
The color of the light is divided into “warm” and “cold”. These properties are determined by the color temperature of the light source, the color filter of the lighting device, as well as the color and texture of reflective surfaces. Fabric wallpapers, textured coloring make the directional light soft (diffuse).
In interior design, all types of light flows in space are used:
- Spot light. Light stream comes from one point– on the ceiling, wall or floor. Spot light can be directional and non-directional, depending on the purpose of the lamp. For example, when developing table lamps, the main efforts of designers are focused on organizing adjustable spotlights.
- Diffused direct light of lamps with a large luminous surface (depending on the lampshade).
- reflected light. He– the most natural, the most harmless. That is why in most modern fixtures reflector systems are installed. The stream of light from the lamp is first thrown from them to the ceiling and only then is scattered.
Mirrors. They “reveal” the walls, “raise” the ceiling, “lower” the floor. Placed opposite each other, they are able to create a mirror corridor. For convenience, illuminate the mirrors. If you are irresistibly drawn to the palace style, consider the appropriate frames. Place a mirror over the fireplace. handsomely– but not safe if your child’s name is Alice, and if she has already been to Wonderland.
Rereading the article and looking at the illustrations took me about half an hour. This time is enough to imagine the general problems of lighting design. Hence the title of the article.
The editors would like to thank the administration of the Moscow Polytechnic Museum and the LIGHT TECHNOLOGY salon for their help in preparing the material.